Friday, June 26, 2009

C1035 Project



Full Name: *******************
Class: IDNC
Lecturer Name: ***************
Center: Kathmandu
Country: Nepal


1 Abstract 3
2 Acknowledgement 4
3 Proposal 5
4 Acceptance 7
5 Introduction and Current System 8
6 Problem Background 9
7 Proposed System 10
8 Objectives 11
9 Network Architecture 12
10 Explanation of Network Architecture 13
11 Network Topologies 14
12 IP configuration 15
13 Protocols Used 17
14 Communication Links 19
15 Communication Media 21
16 Networking and Internetworking Devices 23
17 Network Security 28
18 Budgeting of the Project 31
19 Conclusion 32
20 Reference 33

This whole project related to the documentation on how a network is to be established among the computers of a college at two different blocks and then to establish WAN between two LAN’s located geographically apart using different communication media and links.
For establishing network among computers Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable and switches will be used in Star topology and Thin Coaxial cable will be used in Bus topology. Network interface card will also be used in the computers.
Both network i.e. bus and star topology, at each place will be connected to a router and then the router is connected to the internet. For security purpose external firewall hardware (included with router), software firewall, antivirus, authentication, encryption and UPS device will be used.

This project is done for an educational purpose for Network Essentials (C1035), the course of Informatics Computer School.
I would like to thank all those people who have helped in the completion of the project in time. First of all I would like to sincerely thank my lecturer for providing guidelines and important suggestions about the project. I would also like to thank my colleagues and seniors who provided suggestions and ideas on how to improve the project. I also like to express my gratitude to the people who posted many useful articles on the internet. I would seriously like to thank Mr. Basudev Acharya, the coordinator of Kathmandu Model College for providing me the opportunity to establish a network in his college and giving necessary information about the status of the college.
I gained a lot of new experiences while doing this project. I would greatly like to be grateful to entire Informatics Family for providing assistance, various resources and ideas for completion of the project.

Date: 6th Nov, 2008
The coordinator
Kathmandu Model College
Kathmandu, Nepal
Sub: Proposal to establish WAN connection between two academic blocks of your college.
Being a past student of your college, I have seen the condition of the computer system of the college and I have realized the need of computer networking system for the college at Bagbazar and its next academic block at Kamaladi. So I would like to propose a network system for establishment of WAN link for your college’s academic blocks. This will help to maintain fast communication between the two blocks and overcome many other problems related to files. So, I would like to request you to let me support my ex college to complete the project.
I will be looking forward for your positive response and kind cooperation.
Sincerely yours,
1. There are total of 34 computers in both the blocks which are to be networked.
2. A multi function device each will be used at both the LAN’s.
3. Star-Bus topology will be used to network the computers.
4. CAT-5 UTP cable and RJ-45 connectors will be used to connect.
5. LAN card will be used in the computers where there is no LAN port on the motherboard.
6. 8 port switches will be used to create LAN.
7. Bus topology will be used for computer labs.
8. 2 wireless + broadband routers will be used at each LAN to connect to the internet.
9. Firewalls and antivirus are implemented for network security.

Academic Excellence Through Quality Education
+2 science, Commerce, Humanities (Affiliated to HSEB) BBA, BBS, BA, MA (Affiliated to T.U.)
GPO Box: 4470, Bagbazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Tel: 4242121, Fax: 4269774, E-mail:

Ref. No. 0034
Date: 8th Nov, 2008
Sub: Acceptance of the proposal
Dear Mr. Mero Raja,
This is to inform you that the proposal that you gave us on 6th Nov, 2008 has been accepted by the board meeting. You are welcome to visit our college and get information about the current situation of the college computer system. We will also provide the details of our need in the mean time. Then you can start your work as soon as possible.
We will provide any necessary assistance when needed and wish you in the successful completion of the project.
Basudev Acharya
Kathmandu Model College is an educational institution that was established on 2000 A.D. It has been providing quality education to 10+2 graduates on science, commerce, and humanities faculties, which is affiliated to HSEB (Higher Secondary Education Board) at Bagbazar, Kathmandu. It has increased the field of education and established its next academic block of BBA, BBS, BA, MA affiliated to TU (Tribhuvan University) at Kamaladi, Kathmandu.

The college is also teaching students’ computer with the changing world on IT field. For this the college has the facility of computer lab which is not networked together and don’t have the facility of internet. The college also uses computer for day to day purposes but they are not using to its full potential. The college uses telephone system for communication between its two blocks and files and documents are manually transferred to the next block using transportation, which is still a traditional way. For printing purpose the college has a printer but it is only connected to a single computer at exam division which is creating problem for other staff members for printing purpose. The college is using dialup connection for internet purpose which is also limited to a single computer. The next block at Kamaladi also don’t have network among the computers. So the two blocks don’t have a link to connect them till now.

ü The computers of the two blocks of the college are not networked together i.e. there are no LAN’s and no WAN.
ü They are using storage medium for transferring data and files between two blocks at Bagbazar and Kamaladi.
ü They have not maintained the backup of student’s and staff’s information.
ü They are using dial up for internet, which is a slow method.
ü They are using fax and email for transfer of files.
ü The students don’t have access to internet for reference.
ü To print staff members need to use computer at exam division.

A LAN will be setup at 10+2 block of Kathmandu Model College at Bagbazar where computers of computer lab will be grouped together in a Bus-Star topology using two 8 port switches and then an 8 port switch will be used to connect the computers and other output device of administrative block using a star topology. Then these two LAN’s will be connected using a router. Then a next LAN will be setup at BBA, BBS, BA, MA block of Kathmandu Model College at Kamaladi in the same manner as at Bagbazar. Then these two networks will be connected together using a broadband internet service from an ISP. Like this there will be accessibility of internet service to the students as well as staff members. The college will be able to communicate between the two blocks geographically apart when needed and control the computers. A firewall will be used for controlling unauthorized access of the data of the college by external users and students. Encryption technique will be used to prevent unauthorized access of administrative section.
Finally, the college can be updated with the IT, communicate with the required people faster than before and help the students in their studies further. After the completion of the project, information and procedure regarding the operation of the system will be passed on to the respective personnel.


The objectives of establishing network are:
1. To construct a reliable and fast pathway for communication between two blocks.
2. To transfer data and information faster through electronic medium.
3. To share hardware resources like printer and scanner.
4. To make backup of important files and information on more than one computer at different location.
5. To avail the service of internet to the students for reference purposes.

Network Architecture


At the 10+2 block of KMC at Bagbazar, A LAN is established at the computer lab using bus topology which uses Coaxial cable to connect 13 computers on the second floor. Then an 8 port switch and UTP cable is used to connect computers at library, exam division, account section and principal’s office and a network printer located at exam division on the ground floor in a star topology. For the security of Administrative section a firewall is connected to the network before connecting to the router. Then these two networks are connected to a firewall and wireless broadband router. Then the router is connected to the internet cloud.
Similarly at the BBA, BBS, BA, MA block of KMC at Kamaladi, A LAN is established at the computer lab using bus topology which uses Coaxial cable to connect 13 computers on the third floor. Then an 8 port switch and UTP cable is used to connect computers at library, exam division, account section and coordinator’s office and a multifunction device located at exam division on the ground floor in a star topology. For the security of Administrative section a firewall is used before connecting to the router. Then these two networks are connected to a wireless broadband router + ADSL modem. Then the router is connected to the internet cloud. From the internet cloud the two networks will be able to create a Virtual Private Network.

Network Topologies
Topology is the physical arrangement of computers and communication media in an area. The common topologies available are Bus, Star, Ring and Mesh. But I have used Star and Bus topology for my convenience. I have used Star topology for administrative section and Bus topology for computer lab which is effective for cost benefit point of view.

Star topology
Star topology is a network where the Local Area Network is maintained by connecting all terminals cable to a central hub resembling just like a star. It is the most widely used topology because it is easier to maintain, connect, expand and find out the faulty node. The disadvantage of using star topology is it need much cable and the total network doesn’t work when the hub is damaged.

Bus Topology
Bus topology is a topology where a single cable is extended near all the nodes and then the nodes are connected to the segment of the cable just like in a shape of T with a terminator at the each end of the cable. The bus topology is suitable of small network which requires less cable, so the installation cost is less. Since the whole network goes down when a node is damaged it is difficult to find out the defective node. All the nodes connected to the network can receive the sent information which is defect form security point of view.

S/N Nodes and Access Point IP Configuration
1. Router (B)
2. Exam Division 1
3. MFD 1
4. Library 1
5. Principal
6. Account Section 1
7. Network Printer
8. B1
9. B2
10. B3
11. B4
12. B5
13. B6
14. B7
15. B8
16. B9
17. B10
18. B11
19. B12
20. B13
21. Router (K)
22. Exam Division 2
23. Library 2
24. Account Section 2
25. MFD 2
26. Coordinator
27. K1
28. K2
29. K3
30. K4
31. K5
32. K6
33. K7
34. K8
35. K9
36. K10
37. K11
38. K12
39. K13

Internet Protocol (IP) address
IP address is the name provided to a network computer which helps to identify a computer in the network. An IP address consists of four numbers separated by dots, i.e. for e.g. ( An IP address is automatically given by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server when connected to the network or internet which is called dynamic addressing. We also can give IP address to a computer which is called Static addressing. Here I have used Static addressing to give IP to the computers because it will be easy to recognize each and every computer on the network and we can do our task easily.
I have also given a unique name to each and every nodes and access point in the network so that it will be easy to recognize the computers in the network for those who cannot remember IP address. They can know easily which computer they are accessing on the network or communicating with.

Protocols Used
Protocols are the set of rules and regulation followed by the computer, software, networking devices and media for transmission data and files from one computer to another. Protocols help to set the standard for devices to be used in a specific type of network. With the help of protocols devices following same protocol can communicate easily otherwise they need to use third party software. The types of protocols used in this project are:
2) Ethernet

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol is a set of rules and regulation followed by networking media and computer for data transmission over medium to large network and internet. TCP defines how data are delivered successfully to their destination and IP defines how data are divided into packets and determines the path for the packet to reach its correct destination. TCP/IP is automatically used by the application software while surfing the web.

Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is an organization of scientists, engineers, technicians and educators that has influenced in standards for network cabling and data transmission. IEEE 803.2 standard is a protocol developed by IEEE for communication over LAN, usually bus and star topology. It uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) method for data transmission on a network. For Ethernet communication LAN card and Coaxial, Twisted pair or Fiber optic cables are used. In this communication any node has equal ability to transmit data on the network which are transmitted in form of frames. The frames consist of data and address of sending and receiving node. Then the packets reach every node but it is the responsibility of receiving node to recognize and accept frames with its destination address.

Communication Links
Communication links are the types of internet services used for the networking purpose. The types of communication links used in this project are:
1) Broadband Cable Internet
Broadband Cable internet
A cable broadband internet is used at Bagbazar block of KMC for internet connection which is faster in speed and is available 24 hrs a day. A cable broadband internet is a type of dedicated internet connection where connection is always established. Because cable broadband provides continuous connection it is more fast, is of high quality and more expensive that dial up connection. Here the user just need to type username and password to establish connection. Cable internet line use transmission medium like twisted-pair cable, co-axial cable, fiber optics, etc. Here we have taken cable internet from World Link.

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
An Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is another type of digital line that uses broadband to transmit greater number of signals on a twisted pair cable, on a one pair telephone line. To get ADSL connection a user needs ADSL modem. This connection supports download at a faster rate than upload. This service is suitable for business and person that surf and download form the internet more that upload. An ADSL internet is used at Kamaladi block of KMC which has varying type of bandwidth and can be increased when needed. Here we have taken ADSL internet from NTC which is the only provider of ADSL internet in Nepal.

Communication media
In this project there are two types of connection one is wired networking and other is wireless networking. For the wired networking CAT5 cable, thin co-axial cable is used. For wireless networking a wireless broadband router is used. Wired communication is established by using a Star and Bus topology at both places, Bagbazar and Kamaladi.

Wireless networking
Wireless networking is a means of communication between computers and networking devices without the use of wires and cables. For this a wireless broadband router is used. In this project wireless networking is done for laptops enabled with wireless networking. Like this teachers with laptops can move any where with in reach of wireless device and access the internet and stay in the network.

Wired networking
Wired networking is a means of communication between computers and networking devices with the use of wires and cables. For this wireless broadband router with LAN ports is also capable. Wired communication is the faster way of communicating so the computers in the computer lab and other places are connected with wires. Wired networking is very useful for computers that need not to be moved frequently.

CAT5 cable
CAT5 (category 5) cable is an Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable with 4 pairs of copper wires inside an insulated material. It supports up to speed of 100 mbps Ethernet connection up to distance of 100 meters. It is most widely used for LAN and internet connections that do not require very high speed and continuous data transmission.

Thin Coaxial cable
Thin Coaxial is a type of cable with copper core surrounded by thin insulating material, again the insulating material is surrounded by braided wire and all these is covered by another outer insulating material. This cable is also called RG-58 cable. This cable has less EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) and RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) resistance than Thick Coaxial cable. It is capable of transmission up to 10 mbps. It is cheaper and easier to install than Thick Coaxial cable. It uses BNC connector, BNC T connector and Terminator for connection. It also most widely used for networking purposes which uses bus topology.
Networking and Internetworking Devices
Networking and Internetworking devices are the hardware that enables the nodes to communicate each other. The networking and internetworking devices used in the project are as follows:

Switch is an internetworking device that helps to network the computers. Switch is more advance and secure than Hub but less than router. Switch also has the capability of regenerating the weakened signals. In a hub when a user transmit data or information it sends that signal to all terminal but in switch the selected user only receives the information. Usually a switch consists of 4 or 8 ports but higher end switches are also available. Here I am using a 100mbps 8 port switch which is capable of transmitting data at rate of 100 megabits per second.

Network Interface Card (NIC)
A NIC is an expansion card that is inserted into an expansion slot of a personal computer that enables a computer to connect to a network. A NIC provides an attachment point to connect twisted pair cable, coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. Usually a modern motherboard comes with a network interface allowing RJ45 connectors. But for other types of connection a NIC has to be installed. A NIC card helps a computer to communicate with other devices and computers and helps for transferring text, images, video and voice over communication media directly to the internet or in LAN. In this project I have used 10/100mb Fast Ethernet NIC card which is capable of transferring data at both speeds of 10mbps or 100mbps according to the network.

Wireless router
Wireless router is a network device that connects smaller network like LAN to a larger Network like WAN and also provides access point for LAN wirelessly or in a wired way. Router performs the function of routing which means selecting the fastest path between the two communicating ends. The router automatically sends the communication traffic from the appropriate route determining network failure portion or busy route so the data reaches the correct destination. A wireless router is used at Bagbazar block of KMC College where Broadband Cable internet is to be used. A wireless router is used because we can expand more connections without cables and laptop users with Wi-Fi will also be able to use the internet.

Wireless ADSL + Modem Router
A Wireless ADSL + Modem Router is a single device capable of functioning as a wireless router and an ADSL Modem. ADSL modem is used for ADSL internet purpose. A modem is a device that translates analog signal to digital and vice versa. From a telephone line analog signals come and the modem translates these analog signals to digital form the computer understands. Again the modem translates the digital signals sent by the computer into analog signals so the signals can pass from the telephone wire. Wireless ADSL + Modem Router is used at Kamaladi block of KMC College where ADSL internet is to be used.

Multifunction Device (MFD)
A multifunction device is a single hardware that is capable of performing the functions of a printer, scanner, photocopy machine and a fax machine. This device is very useful because it is cheaper than buying a separate printer, scanner, photocopy machine and fax machine. It also needs less space than for having four separate devices. I have used a black and white multifunction device which is capable for color scanning because the college doesn’t need to print color frequently or large amount. The college already owns a color printer, so black and white MFS is sufficient.

Network security

Firewall is a collection security measure designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to the computer network system. Firewall is also a device configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. It is used to prevent intruders from outside to access the database or information from organizations internal network. Firewall basically examines all the packets that are entering the network of the organization and filters them. Firewall is just like a gate with security system and security guards that allows or denies people to pass. Firewall includes information about which port to be blocked, allow which I.P. address to pass, which application to let pass, etc. Firewall is implemented to make some separation between the intranet and internet that acts as a barrier. I have used firewall to prevent outside users form accessing the internal database of the college and the students’ trying to access and modify the records and question papers. Here we have used router with firewall for firewall purpose and firewall available in windows environment.

Authentication is a process of proving something is valid or claim made by some body is true. It is also a security measure applied using data encryption that identifies the user and assures a computer program or person is trusted one. The authentication process includes checking user name, password, and their administrative powers. With the help of authentication we can filter the users accessing the network. For authentication teachers and staff members are given proper username and password and defined each user’s administrative powers.

Antivirus are programs that are designed to identify and remove programs with unusual behavior and the viruses matching to their database dictionary. Usually an antivirus performs three task identifies the file infected by virus and tires to repair that file by removing the virus from the file or places the file in its quarantine so the related program cannot access it and the virus cannot infect further or the antivirus deletes the infected file. Now day’s modern antivirus can defend from wide range of threats, like Trojan, worms, phishing (commit fraud to get financial information) attack, etc. With the help of antivirus we can prevent the computer from being damaged.

Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) is a device that supplies continuous electric power to the computer when the main power supply is down. It supplies power to the computer from its backup until the main power or generator is on. UPS is typically used to protect computer and other electronic equipment from unexpected power disruption that could cause fatalities and unexpected data loss. UPS are used at administrative section to prevent unexpected data loss. I have used small UPS for each computer of administrative section which is capable of giving backup power ranging from 10 min to 20 min depending upon the load. This allows the user to save their data and properly shutdown the computer.

Encryption is a technique where a plain readable text is transformed into unreadable form to those who doesn’t posses special knowledge about it using an algorithm called cipher. Encryption is used for protecting the information from unauthorized people. Encryption is also used to prevent unauthorized use and reproduction of copyrighted materials and software. Encryption is used for storing question papers of the students and records.

For the purpose of backup a backup disk is made each time information is updated and copies are kept in each administrative computer. So when a computer is crashed down it will be easy to recover the data form another computer or backup media.

Budgeting of the Project
Amount (NRs.)
Multifunction Device
ADSL Modem + Wireless Router
Wireless Router
Link Sys
8 Port Switch
Link Sys
CAT5 cable
Thin Coaxial Cable
RJ45 connector


BNC connector

BNC T connector

Converter (BNC connector To RJ45)

NIC Card
ADSL Internet
1 (256kbps)
Broadband Cable Internet
World Link
13800 for 6 months
Human Resource




Rs. 98800
(Note: The Devices that were already available at the beginning are not included in the above budgeting)
Singapore$ 1 = Rs. 52
NRs. 98800 = Singapore$ 1900

The project of connecting LAN’s to WAN of Kathmandu Model College has enabled networking among the computers and intercommunicate among the two blocks geographically apart. Now the students and teacher also have access to the internet which is very useful. The new system is yet to be tested for few weeks for its full functionality and security. So the practical performance is yet to be judged properly but the theoretical and hardware performance is of high quality and fulfills all the requirements.
While doing this project I have gained lots of practical knowledge and learned new lessons which are very important and useful. The project also taught me that all theoretical thoughts are not easy to implement and many problems might occur while doing a project. I have also gathered knowledge about the market price of the devices and its working behavior and procedure.

1. Microsoft Encarta Premium 2009 Version
CAT5 cable – Category 5 Ethernet Cables – CAT5 and CAT5e
Uninterrupted Power Supply – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Authentication – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Broadband – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Category 5 cable – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coaxial cable – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Encryption – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Firewall – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Network Card – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Network Security – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Network Switch – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Router – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Twisted Pair – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wireless – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wireless Router – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Authentication, Authorization, and Access Control

Router Definition
Switch Definition
What is firewall?
What is coaxial cable?